# Plot With Direction Matlab

For example: of drawing vectors with true magnitude and direction. Running this code in the command window produces the output shown below. eps gset output "foo. shift a plot in the vertical direction?. We can represent the above open-loop transfer function of the motor in MATLAB by defining the parameters and transfer function as follows. If the number of matrix rows equals the vector length, then the plot function plots each matrix column versus the vector. Toggle navigation Close Menu. If you have any feedback please feel free to reach me at @the_ozzinator, or osvaldo. First, understanding direction fields and what they tell us about a differential equation and its solution is important and can be introduced without any knowledge of how to solve a differential equation and so can be done here before we get into solving them. It also shows how to customize the appearance of the axes text by changing the font size. table(text = R - How to get a line-plot of all the rows in a data frame?. Below are given MATLAB Projects designed in Simulink. Using this interface, you can quickly perform basic curve fitting tasks within the same easy-to-use environment. Switching values to plot using keyboard input. I need to save my plot - extended in one direction (width) and in 8K resolution. direction is a two- or three-element vector that describes the axis of rotation in conjunction with the. now plot the circle on the plane. I know plot3 can plot this curve easily, but I want to use color to represent the curve orientation. MATLAB Tools - Various useful functions we've put together for convenience - lemonzi/matlab. txt) or view presentation slides online. plot x, y and direction. First set up your domains and formulas within that coordinate system as you normally would. How do i plot a scatter plot of wind speed and wind direction with wind speed represented by different colours indicating different wind speeds by a colorbar. quiver3(,LineSpec,'filled') fills markers specified by LineSpec. - Applied Example 4. The vectors ts and ys contain the coordinates of these points, to see them as a table type [ts,ys] You can plot the solution without the circles using plot(ts,ys). For example, if the curve is in x direction, the color is "red", if the curve is in y direction, the color is in "green", if the curve is in z direction, the color is in "blue". x = linspace(0 marks and major grid lines for each axis direction: entering it in the MATLAB Command. Since a lot of geologic data is naturally of more than one dimension, we have use for these capabilities. Magnitude and direction of vectors. Matlab Matlab is a powerful “computing environment that combines numeric computation, advanced graphics and visualization” 1. Using this interface, you can quickly perform basic curve fitting tasks within the same easy-to-use environment. axis square makes the current axes region square (or cubed when three-dimensional). The interface is designed so that you can: 5-86. Pplane8 matlab. The number of points to which the data segment is padded when performing the FFT. - irfu/irfu-matlab. Fit data using a cubic spline or a polynomial up to degree 10. To start Matlab, type matlab at the unix prompt. Matlab Plotting - Horizontal Lines and Vertical lines 1. The m-files are in a folder called matlab and in this folder are folders for tsview and velview. This code was designed to run on Matlab 6. You may also plot more cubes to present 3-dimension data. To run the velview and tsview programs you should download the Matlab® mfiles for either x86_64 (GGMatlab_x86_64. Numerical analysis is used to simulate the flight of the rocket, including effects due to thrust, drag, change in mass, and gravity. Cfd Simple Algorithm Matlab Code. Is it possible in Matlab to plot windspeed and wind direction in a time series for historical analysis of wind direction. In particular, we discuss the following topics: 1. How to create a 3D Terrain with Google Maps and height maps in Photoshop - 3D Map Generator Terrain - Duration: 20:32. Plotting orientation in 3-D plot. MATLAB does not require any type declarations or dimension statements. now plot the circle on the plane. Try to enter the following lines of code into your Matlab Command Window. The m-files are not turn-key programs and are not supported by their creator or by USGS. When I use plot function to plot a curve in matlab, I met a probelm. it will keep that colormap for all subsequent 3D plots within the same figure or MATLAB session until you. The following introduction comes from "Making and Printing Plots in MATLAB," which was formerly an appendix to the EGR 103 lab manual. MAT 343 Laboratory 4 Plotting and computer animation in MATLAB In this laboratory session we will learn: 1. 1 (Release 12. They are easy to plot in Matlab. Description. This corresponds to making the Y-axis increase in the same direction as image raster coordiantes. rotate(h,direction,alpha) rotates the graphics object h by alpha degrees. direction is a two- or three-element vector that describes the axis of rotation in conjunction with the origin of the axis of rotation. quiver3(,LineSpec,'filled') fills markers specified by LineSpec. Advanced Search Python plot 3d trajectory. You can concatenate two matrices to create a larger matrix. Notice: Undefined index: HTTP_REFERER in /home/sites/heteml/users/b/r/i/bridge3/web/bridge3s. The plot command can also be used with just one input vector. Why we can evaluate definite integrals. Best Contour Softwares | Best Contouring Products. quiver3(,'PropertyName',PropertyValue,) specifies property name and property value pairs for the quiver chart that the function creates. MATLAB makes use of highly respected algorithms and hence you can be confident about your results. I don't feel like creating a *. DC Motor Speed Control in MATLAB. I redupMatlab, computed e2 (using format longto get more impressive preci-sion), the pulled up dfield5and accepted the default ODE x0= x2 −t. From that I was able to use quiver3 to give a direction to what I wanted to plot. How can I plot wind field with MATLAB? MATLAB displays the following plot: I know how to calculate magnitude and direction of wind from U and V component. Performance difference for plotting direction?. - Video (alternative code) 1. Try to enter the following lines of code into your Matlab Command Window. To run the velview and tsview programs you should download the Matlab® mfiles for either x86_64 (GGMatlab_x86_64. axis image is the same as axis equal except that the plot box fits tightly around the data. dll' submission on the MATLAB Central File Exchange to do this on a Windows platform. I have a matrix, where the first row is my x direction and the first column is my y direction. However the type of plot can be modified with the fun argument, in which case the plots are generated by feval (fun, x, y). Learn more about x, y, azimuth angle, homework MATLAB. 5 2 Vector Calculus Examples Using MATLAB MATLAB can evaluate and plot most of the common vector calculus operations that we have previously discussed. The arguments x1 and y1 define the arguments for the first plot and x1 and y2 for the second. some step width in the x-direction (which. The length of each line should be 0. To write a MatLab code to solve numerically 1D Linear convection equation. 2 January 1999 Third printing Revised for MATLAB 5. Modify the code to suit your special need. When the plot is made, it is using the new, reversed Y-axis, thus explaining why it is flipped. MATLAB news, code tips and tricks, questions, and discussion! We are here to help, but won't do your homework or help you pirate software. then we plot f(x1,y1). discontinuity going in the other direction. MATLAB ® calculates the azimuth and elevation angles using a unit vector pointing in the same direction. plot x, y and direction. V o = 100 m/s is the initial velocity, g. direction is a two- or three-element vector that describes the axis of rotation in conjunction with the origin of the axis of rotation. Best fit lines tend to imply an ordering to the data, but scatter plots tend to imply the data might not be ordered in a way that is compatible with fitting. Plotting data is one of the most important tasks in Matlab programming. I want to plot a graph with one x axis and two y axes. A curated list of awesome Matlab frameworks, libraries and software. Contribute to robEllenberg/MATLAB development by creating an account on GitHub. Please provide suggestions. This is generally of no consequence, but if you have chosen to large, com-. It's just what I needed for a project involving debugging selfintersecting, concave polygons (which should be concave but not self-intersecting). How to plot 3D cones in matlab? Asked by ravi kolla. Matlab's Command Window foreground and background colors can be modified programmatically, using some of Matlab's undocumented internal Java classes. When you see the prompt ">>", you can start entering Matlab commands. Create a script file and type the following code − x = [0:5:100]; y = x; plot(x, y) When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following plot − Let us take one more example to plot the function y = x 2. x = rand(10,1); y = rand(10,1); scatter(x,y) box on Change the color of the box outline in the x -axis direction by setting the XColor property of the axes. d) Obtain the transmit emitted field at focal point and plot it. Contour Line, The Line of intersection of a level surface with the ground surface is known as a contour line. Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations with MATLAB In this chapter we demonstrate the use of MATLAB in working with ordinary diﬀerential equations (ODE) and initial value problems (IVP) of the form ½ y′ = f(t,y), y(t0) = y0. Pplane8 matlab. 'detached' displays the elements of each row in Y as separate blocks behind one another in the x direction. Enter your differential equation and the bounds on variable t and on variable x respectively. pptx), PDF File (. Another advantage of Simulink is the ability to take on initial conditions. Learn more about quiver, skip, reduce arrows MATLAB. I was recently answering a question that came in from a MATLAB user on this blog. which simply plots the function, and then I extract the (x,y) values from the plot object. Plotting data is one of the most important tasks in Matlab programming. For example, in the concurrent/countercurrent flow model, we wanted to calculate the amount of material after each time iteration and plot this on the screen. Magnitude and direction of vectors. Contribute to circstat/circstat-matlab development by creating an account on GitHub. I think you get the functions in Matlab seem not accurate. Whether it's for research, a school assignment, or a work presentation, 3-D plots are great for visualizing what a complicated set of data looks like. First we define a circle in polar. MATLAB adjusts the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis so that they have equal lengths and adjusts the increments between data units accordingly. This MATLAB function draws streamlines from 3-D vector data U, V, W. The function must accept three 3-D array input arguments and return a 3-D array output argument of the same size. One way to create a surface is to generate lists of the x, y, and z coordinates for each location of a patch. The plot function plots columns of Y versus columns of X. 1 January 1998 Second printingRevised for MATLAB 5. Note that the right-hand expressions are not continuously differentiable at $(0,0)$ and there is no linearization at this point, which explains that while stable, the point $(0,0)$ does not look (after close examination) like a standard node. The effort you put into asking a question is often matched by the quality of our answers. MATLAB - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. The pair of square brackets '[]' is the concatenation operator. Advanced Search Python plot 3d trajectory. Paste your plot into your Word document. Matplotlib is a Python 2D plotting library which produces publication quality figures in a variety of hardcopy formats and interactive environments across platforms. MATLAB FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS. Enter initial X and Y values in the two boxes after "Initial point [", and click "Plot solution" to plot the solution to the differential equation with those initial values. For example, use '-o' for a solid line with circle markers. The arguments x1 and y1 define the arguments for the first plot and x1 and y2 for the second. On this direction field, plot the solution curve passing through (0,-1 ⁄ 4). Learn more about x, y, azimuth angle, homework MATLAB. Plotting wind direction is a straight forward attempt in MATLAB. MATLAB Tutor. The plot function is used to plot sets of data on. Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations with MATLAB In this chapter we demonstrate the use of MATLAB in working with ordinary diﬀerential equations (ODE) and initial value problems (IVP) of the form ½ y′ = f(t,y), y(t0) = y0. This is in case of 2D. Is this possible?. In this example, each dot shows one person's weight versus their height. The surfl function displays a shaded surface based on a combination of ambient, diffuse, and specular lighting models. Open a diary file in Matlab in order to save your work. MATLAB news, code tips and tricks, questions, and discussion! We are here to help, but won't do your homework or help you pirate software. A MATLAB script is a program which simply executes lines of MATLAB code. Python plot 3d trajectory. To clear the scatter graph and enter a new data set, press "Reset". For more information, see Convert MuPAD Notebooks to MATLAB Live Scripts. The integrand f(x) may be known only at certain points, such as obtained by sampling. Is there a simple way to project a matrix of wind direction values (360 degrees) onto a sufacem plot? Perhaps there is a way to add and arrow and align it based on the wind direction value? I do not want to add magnitude as well, just direction. mendoza@gmail. MATLAB Tools - Various useful functions we've put together for convenience - lemonzi/matlab. I don't feel like creating a *. I need to plot the direction field and phase plane of the following ODE using matlab. Hint: Use line(). Enter initial X and Y values in the two boxes after "Initial point [", and click "Plot solution" to plot the solution to the differential equation with those initial values. You can use mouse clicks combined with ginput. php(143) : runtime-created function(1) : eval()'d code(156) : runtime-created. FEATURES o MATLAB is an interactive system for doing numerical computations. Change the length of the linear charges to extend from − 16 to 16 in the x direction and plot the flux lines in the same region again. Below are given MATLAB Projects designed in Simulink. What you can do is put your code in a while loop and wait for the user to click somewhere on the screen. Dear all, I would like to plot the wind speed and direction in windrose. shift a plot in the vertical direction?. Orange Box Ceo 6,283,662 views. quiver3(ax,) plots into the axes ax instead of into the current axes (gca). I have a wind-detector set up to monitor wind directions [angle=0-360 degrees] for a period of time, T. quiver3(,LineSpec,'filled') fills markers specified by LineSpec. Jun 21, 2014 · Use keyboard input to assign value to a variable. Matlab provides for many specialized graphs including bar graphs, pie charts, histograms, and direction fields. It is evaluated in a “with Math” block, so you can use functions such as sin(x) and pow(y,2). read the channel delay from the plot. MATLAB news, code tips and tricks, questions, and discussion! We are here to help, but won't do your homework or help you pirate software. Matplotlib can be used in Python scripts, the Python and IPython shells, the Jupyter notebook, web application servers, and four graphical user interface toolkits. First the equations are integrated forwards in time and this part of the orbit is plot-ted. How to predict multiple time series data using Learn more about time series prediction using deep learning Deep Learning Toolbox. I would like to plot the point and add an arrow, starting from the point and pointing toward the direction defined by the angle. (The data is plotted on the graph as "Cartesian (x,y) Coordinates") Example:. The default origin of the axis of rotation is the center of the plot box. Matplotlib is a Python 2D plotting library which produces publication quality figures in a variety of hardcopy formats and interactive environments across platforms. This method requires little experience in programming, so dive in with step one to get started. This article is meant to inform new MATLAB users how to plot an anonymous function. The function must accept three 3-D array input arguments and return a 3-D array output argument of the same size. x = rand(10,1); y = rand(10,1); scatter(x,y) box on Change the color of the box outline in the x -axis direction by setting the XColor property of the axes. V o = 100 m/s is the initial velocity, g. Specify h as a surface, patch, line, text, or image object. 3-D implicit function to plot, specified as a function handle to a named or anonymous function. For example, the direction field of. Notice: Undefined index: HTTP_REFERER in /home/forge/newleafbiofuel. shift a plot in the vertical direction?. Asked by Arsal15. You may also plot more cubes to present 3-dimension data. The default origin of the axis of rotation is the center of the plot box. In particular, we discuss the following topics: 1. MATLAB File I/O: from the Graphical User Interface. Contribute to robEllenberg/MATLAB development by creating an account on GitHub. In this section, we will show you how to plot data, modify plots and save your work. Enter dfield7 in the Command Window (after a short wait, DFIELD7 Setup Window appears). for example, the below image can be seen at 0 degree from x axis. Stepper Motor Direction Control in MATLAB. I don't feel like creating a *. Correction of Frequency in Arrival Direction. Exercise 24 Now suppose that 7 dy dx y 1 arises as a model Plot a direction from MATH 20D 0382332 at University of California, San Diego Matlab assignment #2. How can I plot a 3d surface in matlab? Matrix in MATLAB and I need to plot that. Pierson-Moskowitz Spectrum. For example, the direction field of. quiver(x,y,u,v) plots vectors as arrows at the coordinates specified in each corresponding pair of elements in x and y. Basic Plot. We’re going to focus this time on the calculation of definite integrals using the Matlab already built-in functions. When I use plot function to plot a curve in matlab, I met a probelm. The m-files are in a folder called matlab and in this folder are folders for tsview and velview. I have a matrix, where the first row is my x direction and the first column is my y direction. Contribute to circstat/circstat-matlab development by creating an account on GitHub. How to plot 3D direction and speed using R or MATLAB? Ask Question Asked 3 years, 6 months I am looking for a way to plot a wind 3D direction in R or MATLAB. How to create a 3D Terrain with Google Maps and height maps in Photoshop - 3D Map Generator Terrain - Duration: 20:32. Open Mobile Search. Plot a line between two points with given angle which points its direction. Matlab's Command Window foreground and background colors can be modified programmatically, using some of Matlab's undocumented internal Java classes. Matlab provides for many specialized graphs including bar graphs, pie charts, histograms, and direction fields. For your first project, you will need to upload a png file of a MATLAB plot. Below are given MATLAB Projects designed in Simulink. What is a scatter plot. Whether it's for research, a school assignment, or a work presentation, 3-D plots are great for visualizing what a complicated set of data looks like. Only a few of the summaries are listed -- use Matlab's help function to see more. First we define a circle in polar. How to make a graph with multiple axes in MATLAB. If the number. DISCLAIMER: The Matlab m-files provide partial documentation of the techniques used to create the analyses and plots in this report. direction is a two- or three-element vector that describes the axis of rotation in conjunction with the origin of the axis of rotation. - Video (alternative code) 1. Magnitude and direction of vectors. What is one easy method to create a *. For example, if the curve is in x direction, the color is "red", if the curve is in y direction, the color is in "green", if the curve is in z direction, the color is in "blue". So I'm a big time beginner in. This article is meant to inform new MATLAB users how to plot an anonymous function. In this example, each dot shows one person's weight versus their height. The length of each line should be 0. A surface is a set of polygons. eps" gset terminal postscript eps plot(1:10). This topic is given its own section for a couple of reasons. hereby i am attaching my both nc file named uwnd and vwnd. axis image is the same as axis equal except that the plot box fits tightly around the data. Direction fields with MATLAB Consider the first-order differential equation of the form ( , ) dy f x y dx where f is a continuous function. The number of points to which the data segment is padded when performing the FFT. The default origin of the axis of rotation is the center of the plot box. We’re going to focus this time on the calculation of definite integrals using the Matlab already built-in functions. Look at the picture to determine the starting and ending coordinates of each line. For example, if. Start Matlab. If you just want to plot an existing bunch of numbers with an offset. I have 2 nc file which contains hourly data of wind magnitude i. rotates the graphics object h by alpha degrees. Change the length of the linear charges to extend from − 16 to 16 in the x direction and plot the flux lines in the same region again. To start Matlab, type matlab at the unix prompt. surfl(Z) and surfl(X,Y,Z) create three-dimensional shaded surfaces using the default direction for the light source and the default lighting coefficients for the shading model. For the scatter plot to be displayed the number of x-values must equal the number of y-values. com/58zd8b/ljl. 1-Analyzing Resistive Circuits Using MATLAB The Computer program MATLAB is a tool for making mathematical calculations. matlab_commandline, programs which illustrate how MATLAB can be run from the UNIX command line, that is, not with the usual MATLAB command window. The following code gives a histogram for my first test in Finite Math and Calculus I. Contour Line, The Line of intersection of a level surface with the ground surface is known as a contour line. axis image is the same as axis equal except that the plot box fits tightly around the data. This example uses the following techniques: Stream tubes to indicate flow direction and divergence of the vector field in the wind data set. I prefer, however, to keep this environment string shorter. so the data is like this: [angle1 x angle2 x Z] I have multiple Z values at different conditions as well. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. txt) or view presentation slides online. How can I plot a 3d surface in matlab? Matrix in MATLAB and I need to plot that. rotate(h,direction,alpha) rotates the graphics object h by alpha degrees. The surfl function displays a shaded surface based on a combination of ambient, diffuse, and specular lighting models. MATLAB Tools - Various useful functions we've put together for. Aspects of the present disclosure describe Raman based Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) systems with a novel recovery algorithm that improves the spatial resolution of DTS system. Now change to the "Isoclines" menu, and you can plot isoclines. The function must accept three 3-D array input arguments and return a 3-D array output argument of the same size. When running from MATLAB this verion of the m-files should be downloaded. Paleomagnetic reunion. , u component and Wind direction i. Data Store Memory. Direction field vectors: MATLAB/Octave Python Description; plot(1:10) print -depsc2 foo. 4 Direction Fields 39 Solution Curves and Direction Fields Euler’s visualization idea begins with the direction ﬁeld, drawn for some graph window, with pairs of grid points and line segments dense enough to cover most of the white space in the graph window. The other dimension can vary. Cfd Simple Algorithm Matlab Code. Correction of Frequency in Arrival Direction. Create a line plot. MATLAB live scripts support most MuPAD functionality, although there are some differences. Clicking the "Plot field" button will plot the direction field. This is where I stash a number of short little scripts to do various things, including setting the path. txt) or view presentation slides online. How to make a graph with multiple axes in MATLAB. This point is not necessarily the origin of the axes. For your first project, you will need to upload a png file of a MATLAB plot. A menu should open up that will allow you to add x and y axis labels, change the range of the x-y axes; add a title to the plot, and so on. You may define the origin point and the dimension for the cube. Specify h as a surface, patch, line, text, or image object. i would like to be able to set the reference line to perhaps 45 degree and see if teh monotinicity value of the plot would change if i change the angle. Matlab Circular Statistics Toolbox. Plot a direction field for (6) with x and y between -5 and 5. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. We’re going to focus this time on the calculation of definite integrals using the Matlab already built-in functions. Demo files are attached for ease of use. The following introduction comes from "Making and Printing Plots in MATLAB," which was formerly an appendix to the EGR 103 lab manual. The plot Function. If the number of matrix rows equals the vector length, then the plot function plots each matrix column versus the vector. I have position data for x and y, as well as velocity data in the x and y directions. These files are called, not surprisingly, m-files. If Y is a vector, then the x -axis scale ranges from 1 to length(Y). MATLAB news, code tips and tricks, questions, and discussion! We are here to help, but won't do your homework or help you pirate software. I pointed out what this was saying about the behavior of solutions: those above the parabola headed o to in nity at some point, while. Matplotlib can be used in Python scripts, the Python and IPython shells, the Jupyter notebook, web application servers, and four graphical user interface toolkits. First the equations are integrated forwards in time and this part of the orbit is plot-ted. These lists are copied from the help screens for MATLAB Version 4. axis square makes the current axes region square (or cubed when three-dimensional). A nice package for plotting direction ﬁeld in Matlab (although resourceful, Matlab does not provide such facility natively) can. quiver3(,'PropertyName',PropertyValue,) specifies property name and property value pairs for the quiver chart that the function creates. - Video (alternative code) 1. Asked by Maeve Ryan. m from AA 1% Q1d % Leave any lines of MATLAB code that are already in this file % DO NOT clear, close or clc inside this script % Do not forget good programming practices % % Your name:. Write a MATLAB program to plot the electric flux lines in the region bounded by the dashed lines. how to plot contour in MATLAB with 3 sets/vectors of scattered. A scatter plot (or scatter diagram) is a two-dimensional graphical representation of a set of data. Is it possible in Matlab to plot windspeed and wind direction in a time series for historical analysis of wind direction. Make sure to label the axes if necessary, and to indicate what is depicted in each plot. As you didn't mention what kind of plot you want, here are two examples (with the ggplot2 package): # reading the data df <- read. While not increasing the actual resolution of the spectrum (the minimum distance between resolvab. Undocumented Matlab. A menu should open up that will allow you to add x and y axis labels, change the range of the x-y axes; add a title to the plot, and so on. Open Mobile Search. I have wind direction (degN) and wind speed (m) and would like to have a plot similar to attached picture (from weatherunderground. To plot in a different coordinate system, the commands sph2cart and pol2cart come in handy. The m-files are not turn-key programs and are not supported by their creator or by USGS. The values in between are the velocities of each point. You can concatenate two matrices to create a larger matrix. Also some general plasma routines. I mean if they are A. Open the first file for this module by typing on the Matlab command line: slope1. direction is a two- or three-element vector that describes the axis of rotation in conjunction with the origin of the axis of rotation. AIM: To study and plot the radiation pattern of a Broad-side array using MATLAB DEFINITION: An array is said to be broad side array if phase angle is such that it makes maximum. DISCLAIMER: The Matlab m-files provide partial documentation of the techniques used to create the analyses and plots in this report. rotate(h,direction,alpha) rotates the graphics object h by alpha degrees. When the plot is made, it is using the new, reversed Y-axis, thus explaining why it is flipped. Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations with MATLAB In this chapter we demonstrate the use of MATLAB in working with ordinary diﬀerential equations (ODE) and initial value problems (IVP) of the form ½ y′ = f(t,y), y(t0) = y0. Start Matlab and change the “current directory” to your Matlab directory. For example, if the curve is in x direction, the color is "red", if the curve is in y direction, the color is in "green", if the curve is in z direction, the color is in "blue“. For example, in the concurrent/countercurrent flow model, we wanted to calculate the amount of material after each time iteration and plot this on the screen. Fit data using a cubic spline or a polynomial up to degree 10. Correction of Frequency in Arrival Direction. Numerical diﬀerentiation and solution of the IVP. Best Contour Softwares | Best Contouring Products. The compass function takes its inputs in Cartesian format, but outputs polar plots. Animation in Matlab For Summer 1997 Envision-It! Workshop One of the uses for Matlab is to make a series of calculations and plots.